The Pearson r Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation is the most common measure of correlation or association. The computation can be used for determining the relationship between two variables with paired observations. The r value can have possible values between -1 to +1. The closer the r value is to -/+ 1, the stronger is the relationship between the two variables. Consequently, as the r value approaches 0, the relationship gets weaker.

In the following example, Pearson r is used in order to determine the influence of the number of hospitals in a city to its maternal mortality rate (MMR).

Credits:

http://www.une.edu.au/WebStat/unit_materials/c4_descriptive_statistics/pearsons_coeff.html

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Pearson%27s+r

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